Pre-malignancy and malignancy of the cervix tend to be associated with sexual activity suggesting the possibility of transmission of a causative organism. Starting sexual activity at a young age, multiple partners and smoking are known factors.

It took many years to fathom out the culprit which proves to be the wart virus (Human Papillomavirus -HPV). From 1997, it has been possible to screen for the presence of this virus in routine clinical practice. The test is slightly expensive.

Eighty per cent of sexually active females will become infected with this common virus at some point in their lifetime. Approximately 20 million people are currently infected with HPV. At least 50 percent of sexually active men and women acquire genital HPV infection at some point in their lives. About 6.2 million Americans get a new genital HPV infection each year. 0701 Over 40 types of HPV infect the genital epithelium, and it isnow widely accepted that cervical infections by approximately15 carcinogenic types cause virtually all cervical cancer worldwide. In addition to HPV types 16 and 18, types 31, 33,35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 73, and 82 should be consideredcarcinogenic, or high-risk, types, and types 26, 53, and 66should be considered probably carcinogenic. Approximately 70% of cervical cancers are caused byHPV types 16 or 18.


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This is the personal website of David A Viniker MD FRCOG, retired Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist - Specialist Interests - Reproductive Medicine including Infertility, PCOS, PMS, Menopause and HRT.
I do hope that you find the answers to your women's health questions in the patient information and medical advice provided.

I do hope that you find the answers to your women's health questions in the patient information and medical advice provided.

The aim of this web site is to provide a general guide and it is not intended as a substitute for a consultation with an appropriate specialist in respect of individual care and treatment.

David Viniker retired from active clinical practice in 2012.
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