A tumour is essentially a swelling. The cells of a benign (innocent) tumour look normal under the microscope and there is no suggestion of them invading other tissues. The individual cells and their nuclei have similar shapes to that of normal cells. Malignant cells and their nuclei have different shapes and they invade and destroy surrounding tissues.

There are many specialised cells in the body, each having its own function. Each can form innocent or malignant tumours. There are a large variety of tumours with different causes and thus cancer is not one disease. Each cancer may have its own set of symptoms. The different cancers respond to treatment in different ways.


Women's Health


Please click on the required question.

Women's Health

Thank you for choosing to visit us.


This is the personal website of David A Viniker MD FRCOG, retired Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist - Specialist Interests - Reproductive Medicine including Infertility, PCOS, PMS, Menopause and HRT.
I do hope that you find the answers to your women's health questions in the patient information and medical advice provided.

I do hope that you find the answers to your women's health questions in the patient information and medical advice provided.

The aim of this web site is to provide a general guide and it is not intended as a substitute for a consultation with an appropriate specialist in respect of individual care and treatment.

David Viniker retired from active clinical practice in 2012.
In 1999, he setup this website - www.2womenshealth.com - to provide detailed
information many of his patients requested. The website attracts thousands of visitors every day from around the world.
Website optimisation (SEO) has became more than an active hobby. If you would like advice on your website, please visit his website Keyword SEO PRO or email him on david@page1-on-google.com.
David Viniker Linkedin Profile